Immunodeficiency disease in cats (FIV), also known as HIV disease in cats, is caused by a virus belonging to the retrovirus family. Immunodeficiency in cats (FIV) is common worldwide and its rates vary between geographic areas.
Across the United States and Canada, antibody rates (FIV) range from about 4% to 24%. With a team of doctors, experts find out information through the following article.
What is immunodeficiency disease in cats?
Immunodeficiency disease in cats (FIV) is caused by a virus belonging to the Retrovirus family. The virus has been linked to cats’ neutropenia virus (FeLV) and the virus that causes human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV).
The virus (FIV) is transmitted only by cats and does not spread to other mammals. Virus (FIV) is easily disabled by ultraviolet rays, high temperatures, detergents ..
The disease is divided into several small groups (Clades), partly based on the Env (Envelope) gene sequence. Worldwide, five small groups are recognized (A, B, C, D and E). In addition, there are new subgroups that have been studied in cats from Texas (Group F).
Transmit immunodeficiency disease in cats
In the natural environment, (FIV) is mainly transmitted by saliva or blood, due to bites and wounds. The incidence of female cats is usually higher than in male cats. Alternatively, (FIV) may be given by injection.
In experimental environment, uterine and milk-borne diseases account for a high proportion (over 50%). However, the transmission of semen in nature is likely very low. Transverse transmission rarely occurs.
Cat’s bio milk provides all the cat’s nutrients with breast milk. In addition, they also work very well in preventing immunodeficiency in cats.
The pathogenesis of immunodeficiency in cats reflects the interaction of a large number of factors including:
- The age of animals at the time of infection. Kittens develop clinical signs earlier.
- The nature of the disease. Some strains of FIV are more likely to cause disease than others.
- Number of viruses infected
- Path of infection
These factors influence viral dynamics, the nature of the immune response (FIV) after infection, clinical symptoms and disease progression.
Symptoms of immunodeficiency disease in cats
Infected cats (FIV) also progress through several stages, similar to HIV infection in humans. The process of developing the disease is also divided into two stages including the acute and late stages – often called AIDS in cats.
Although the division of clinical stages of infection (FIV) may rarely predict the disease, it is not possible to clearly distinguish the stages. Clinical symptoms of (FIV) are nonspecific.
Manifestations of the disease (FIV) in the acute phase
- Cat has fever, tiredness.
- Cats have symptoms of acute enteritis
- Stomatitis, dermatitis, conjunctivitis
- Respiratory disease
- Response of the lymph node
The acute phase can last from a few days to a few weeks, after which the cat will move into a clinically healthy stage. The duration of the asymptomatic phase is often different.
Depending on factors such as the pathogenicity of the bacteria and the cat’s exposure to other pathogens. However, it usually lasts for years.
In the later stages of the disease, clinical signs reflect opportunistic infections, tumor appearance, myelosuppression, and nerves.