Immunodeficiency diseases in cats (FIV)

Immunodeficiency disease in cats (FIV), also known as HIV disease in cats, is caused by a virus belonging to the retrovirus family. Immunodeficiency in cats (FIV) is common worldwide and its rates vary between geographic areas.

Across the United States and Canada, antibody rates (FIV) range from about 4% to 24%. With a team of doctors, experts find out information through the following article.

What is immunodeficiency disease in cats?

Immunodeficiency disease in cats (FIV) is caused by a virus belonging to the Retrovirus family. The virus has been linked to cats’ neutropenia virus (FeLV) and the virus that causes human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV).

The virus (FIV) is transmitted only by cats and does not spread to other mammals. Virus (FIV) is easily disabled by ultraviolet rays, high temperatures, detergents ..

The disease is divided into several small groups (Clades), partly based on the Env (Envelope) gene sequence. Worldwide, five small groups are recognized (A, B, C, D and E). In addition, there are new subgroups that have been studied in cats from Texas (Group F).

Transmit immunodeficiency disease in cats

In the natural environment, (FIV) is mainly transmitted by saliva or blood, due to bites and wounds. The incidence of female cats is usually higher than in male cats. Alternatively, (FIV) may be given by injection.

In experimental environment, uterine and milk-borne diseases account for a high proportion (over 50%). However, the transmission of semen in nature is likely very low. Transverse transmission rarely occurs.

Cat’s bio milk provides all the cat’s nutrients with breast milk. In addition, they also work very well in preventing immunodeficiency in cats.

The pathogenesis of immunodeficiency in cats reflects the interaction of a large number of factors including:

  • The age of animals at the time of infection. Kittens develop clinical signs earlier.
  • The nature of the disease. Some strains of FIV are more likely to cause disease than others.
  • Number of viruses infected
  • Path of infection

These factors influence viral dynamics, the nature of the immune response (FIV) after infection, clinical symptoms and disease progression.

Symptoms of immunodeficiency disease in cats

Infected cats (FIV) also progress through several stages, similar to HIV infection in humans. The process of developing the disease is also divided into two stages including the acute and late stages – often called AIDS in cats.

Although the division of clinical stages of infection (FIV) may rarely predict the disease, it is not possible to clearly distinguish the stages. Clinical symptoms of (FIV) are nonspecific.

Manifestations of the disease (FIV) in the acute phase

  • Cat has fever, tiredness.
  • Cats have symptoms of acute enteritis
  • Stomatitis, dermatitis, conjunctivitis
  • Respiratory disease
  • Response of the lymph node

The acute phase can last from a few days to a few weeks, after which the cat will move into a clinically healthy stage. The duration of the asymptomatic phase is often different.

Depending on factors such as the pathogenicity of the bacteria and the cat’s exposure to other pathogens. However, it usually lasts for years.

In the later stages of the disease, clinical signs reflect opportunistic infections, tumor appearance, myelosuppression, and nerves.

Prevention of small liver fluke in dogs

Prevention of small liver fluke in dogs is necessary. Dogs can not only get sick but people can get sick. Referring to diseases related to eating habits, liver fluke is one of the leading groups.

Do you know effective prevention? If you have not found an effective solution, the following article is for you.

Preventing small liver fluke in dogs

The popularity is not just because the disease is related to a traditional specialty dish. But also because liver fluke has a significant effect on public health. Some common treatments are:

  • Periodically remove dog helminths.
  • Avoid feeding raw fish and dogs to avoid pathogens coming into contact with intermediate hosts.
  • Advise people not to eat fish salads, and foods made from uncooked crabs and fish.

Local endemic areas need management measures as well as propaganda to the community from fish farming (such as not dropping fresh manure into ponds) to process fish food.

Small liver fluke if diagnosed early, the treatment is usually effective. And limit many dangerous complications.

Manifestations of small liver fluke in dogs

As stated in the previous article, the clinical manifestations of small liver fluke depend on the intensity of infection and the host’s response. In rare cases, there are no symptoms.

In the onset stage, dogs with small liver fluke often begin to show signs of digestive disorders like anorexia.

There are also indigestion, dull pain in the liver, diarrhea or constipation erratic. Attached can see the whole rash, rash.

Later, dogs tend to have more liver pain. Accompanied by anemia, jaundice and ascites may appear at a later stage. If there is a bacterial superinfection, the dog may have a fever or persistent fever.

Flukes from the liver appear?

Small liver fluke is a complex parasite that includes both humans and intermediate hosts (such as snails, fish, etc.). The best way to prevent the spread of disease is to break at least one stage in the life cycle of the tapeworm.

Adult flukes parasitize and lay eggs in the bile duct. Eggs distributed according to their environment meet favorable conditions. Eggs hatch into hairy larvae and penetrate into freshwater snails to develop into juveniles (cercariae).

The larvae invade freshwater fish and develop into larvae (metacercariae) parasites in the muscles of the fish. Predators and fish eaters contain follicles. After 25 hours the larvae move down the small intestine, into the liver and develop into an adult form.

Small liver fluke disease: the main host is humans and some animals such as dogs, cats, tigers, foxes, otters, mice. The vector that transmits the disease is Bythinia and Melania snails …

The incubation period of small liver fluke is not clear and depends on the intensity of the infection. Often infected with more than 100 new symptoms clearly.

How Many Times a Day Do You Feed a Gerbil?

When you have your favorite pet, you know that you need to take total care of your pet. You need to keep in mind each and every detail of what your pet needs. Feeding, of course, is one of the most important aspects that you should focus more on. You need to also know how much exactly do you need to feed your pets. The gerbil is also called a rodent and is kept as a pet by many people. Belonging to the family of rodents, this pet is quite small a mammal. They are omnivorous creatures and are closely connected to rats. Since they are very small, as a pet keeper you need to know the best food for gerbils that they eat.

What Should Be Included In A Gerbil’s Everyday Diet?

How Many Times a Day Do You Feed a Gerbil?

There is a certain limitation to what gerbils can eat and how much exactly they can be fed. It is often said that the gerbils have a very confusing and weird diet. The best food for gerbils should be carefully measured to such an extent that you cannot go wrong with it. If in case, you go wrong, it can affect gerbils a lot. So, in order to ensure a long and healthy life of your pet gerbil, you need to take care of its food habits.


– It is possibly the most important item in your food list that gerbils definitely need for proper maintenance. You should always make sure to put clean water in the cage of the Gebril. The container where you are putting the water should be properly cleaned as well and should be filled with clean filtered water.

Provide Raw Vegetables

– Raw vegetables are a source of a healthy diet chart and can be very effective for your pet gerbil. They can eat a variety of different vegetables but in a very small quantity. It is a very important item in their everyday diet. You can cut these vegetables into little pieces so that they do not end up eating way too much. Some of the main vegetables that are quite enjoyed by a gerbil are broccoli, peas, lettuce, and carrots. Remember, it should not be provided in whole or big chunks to your pet.

Include Healthy Fruits

How Many Times a Day Do You Feed a Gerbil?

– Fruits are not only the healthiest but also the nutritionist part of a gerbil’s diet system. You can feed your pet gerbil small chunks of fruits every week. Gerbils simply love to eat a variety of fruits just like they love to eat raw vegetables. They love eating fruits more than they love eating their fruit mix. So, you must always remember not to overfeed them with lots and lots of fruits. The quantity must be very small. Some of the fruits can you can definitely feed your pet Gerbil with are Blueberries, apple, pear, mango, kiwi, strawberries, pineapple, and banana.

Gerbil Food Mix

– You can prepare a food mix for your gerbil that is infused with vitamins and other nutritions that can ensure a very healthy life of your gerbil. You can give your gerbil sunflower seeds to eat, however, they should not be more than 3 or 4 per day. Apart from that, you can also treat your pet gerbil with nuts. Before giving nuts to your gerbil, you need to make sure that they are not too oily and are completely devoid of salt. You can purchase such nuts from the pet store if you like. The one ingredient that you should definitely avoid putting in the food mix of your gerbil is sugar. It can harshly affect the entire system of your pet.

Add Vitamins To the list

– Vitamins can be extremely essential nutrients for your pet gerbil. This is simply because gerbils tend to catch a cold very easily. To get rid of it, vitamins can be very effective. You can find various vitamin drops for your gerbil. All you need to do is put a few drops into the water container of your gerbil and let it drink the water along with the essential vitamins.

Goodness Of Timothy hay

– Timothy hay is full of rich nutrients that can totally enrich the diet of your gerbil. This hay is basically a roughage that proves to be quite healthy for your pet gerbil. The timothy hay should be given absolutely fresh to your gerbil. Timothy hay can help in keeping your digestive system properly running. It can also act as quite munchy food for your pet gerbil and can be given as a snack too.

These are some of the most important food that you must provide your pet gerbil on a regular basis. However, at the same time, you should make sure of the quantity of food that you are feeding to your pet gerbil. Some of the best food for gerbils that you should avoid feeding to your gerbil is Rhubarb, avocado, grapes, cabbage, chocolate, and onions.

How much should you feed your Gerbil?

How Many Times a Day Do You Feed a Gerbil?

There can be a lot of different varieties of food that you feed your pet gerbil. However, the most important thing that you must very importantly remember is to feed your gerbil a limited quantity of food. You cannot feed them more than a tablespoon of food on a regular basis. Do not provide excessive treats to your gerbil while playing as that can hamper the digestive system of the gerbil massively.

You must give your gerbil the right amount of food so that it does not overfeeds itself or even stashes some of that food in its cage for eating it later. As already mentioned above, the fruits and vegetables that you provide to your gerbil must be very less and also cut into the smallest chunks every. This is so that they can easily digest everything, without any difficulty. You need to make sure to feed your gerbil at most once in 24 hours. You can either feed it during the day time or can do that at night. Once you follow this, you would not have to think about your pet’s health.

What Is the Best Chinchilla Cage?

What Is the Best Chinchilla Cage?

Chinchillas are known for their massive ears, adorable look and big eyes. Many people have a chinchilla as their favourite pet at their home. They are happy to spend their leisure time with this pet and enhance their routine activities to make their pet comfortable in all aspects. Individuals who have recently bought a cute chinchilla think about the best approaches to take care of this pet on a regular basis. They have to spend enough time to compare the most recent collections of best chinchilla cages and make positive changes in their approach for the chinchilla cage shopping. They can take note of the main attractions of chinchilla cages from top brands on the market and make positive changes in their approach for the chinchilla cage shopping.

Explore the chinchilla cage collection

What Is the Best Chinchilla Cage?

As a beginner to the chinchilla cage collection, you have to be conscious about how to be smart as well as successful in your approach for buying the right chinchilla cage.  Every chinchilla in the suitable cage can be healthy and happy throughout its life beyond doubt. Experts in the chinchilla care nowadays recommend the most successful brands of high-quality yet cheap prices of cages. They consider different factors like the cage type, number of levels, amount of space and accessories while appraising the real worth of the chinchilla cage. They understand the foremost differences between chinchilla cages designed for housing a single chinchilla and others designed for housing more than one chinchilla.

All beginners to the chinchilla pet care activities in recent times eagerly focus on everything about the best chinchilla cages designed and manufactured by reliable companies. They can directly explore the overall specifications of chinchilla cages and compare these cages based on the dimensions, bar spacing, levels, shelves, cost, quality, durability, easy-to-maintain nature and other important things. Iron bars in the chinchilla cages prevent chinchilla from chewing. These bars make the cage last for years devoid of replacement. This is worthwhile to prefer and buy the chinchilla cage with the tall and multi-level design which gives your pet maximum room to jump and exercise.

High-quality yet affordable chinchilla cages

The latest chinchilla cages have the best design to move water bottle and food dish to fit the ideal location of the chinchilla. As compared to buying the chinchilla cage with the single door, you can prefer and buy the chinchilla cage with different levels and three large doors. This is because you can easily access the pet at any level in its cage. Beginners to the cages for chinchilla may have an idea to choose the cage with the wire flooring. They have to quit this idea because the wire flooring causes injury to the feet of the chinchilla.  They can choose and invest in the chinchilla cage with a ramp and wide shelf in each section designed for climbing. You have to consider how to attach any add-on to the cage soon or later.

A chinchilla cage with a large and latched door on every level is very useful to easily access the pet and remove it from the cage. The overall cage is set on wheels and recommended for those who frequently move the cage around the home as needed. Pet owners can use the flat floors of the cage with plenty of space for food bowls, toys and bedding accessories. They have to clip a water bottle onto the metal bar for an instant access by the pet.  Trays and shelves in the cage must have a reasonable size of borders to keep shavings as well as waste from falling out the cage’s sides. They can remove the tray for cleaning purpose daily. They have to wipe down the metal bars when they become dirty.

Explore and compare chinchilla cages on online

Catchy ads regarding the best chinchilla cages encourage many residents to directly compare and narrow down these cages based on professional guidelines from chinchilla cage specialists. The space between the metal bars in the chinchilla cage is an important factor to keep in mind because such space only provides adequate airflow as well as ventilation. Good material in the flat bottom of the tray in the chinchilla cage is recommended to keep the feet of this pet animal safe and healthy. You can contact experts in the chinchilla cages and improve your proficiency about how to be successful in your approach for the chinchilla cage shopping. You will get the complete assistance and ensure about the stress-free method to select and order the cage for your chinchilla.

A cage with an expandable feature is preferred by the chinchilla pet owner who likes to make their pet comfortable and enjoy inside the cage all through its life. Individuals who own such cage can expand it when their pet grows or add another chinchilla in the same cage. You can compare single and double-story versions of the chinchilla cages on the market right now. You will get the absolute assistance and fulfil your expectations about how to successfully buy the chinchilla cage. Images and descriptions of chinchilla cages give you the absolute guidance and encourage you to directly choose and buy the appropriate cage. You have to read honest reviews of successful brands of the best chinchilla cages on online and make an informed decision for the chinchilla cage shopping.

Fulfil chinchilla cage shopping expectations

Beginners to the chinchilla care have to understand and ensure about the role of the best cage in the enhanced comfort and routine life of the chinchilla at home. They search for high-quality yet competitive price of the chinchilla cage with an aim to provide the appropriate home for their pet. They can contact the reliable pet shop where different types of chinchilla cages available for sale. Once they have contacted and discussed with specialists in the chinchilla cage, they can directly choose and purchase one of the most appropriate chinchilla cages. They can save their priceless time and make certain about how to efficiently use every feature of the chinchilla cage to make their pet comfortable and safe in its home.


The gastrointestinal tract in dogs has numerous normal bacteria that provide assistance with the digestion of food. In some cases the bacterium Clostridium perfringens multiplies and can cause acute (short term) or chronic (long term) diarrhea. The ingestion of uncooked meats, marine debris, and decaying vegetation may be the cause. Often this bacterium is introduced at dog parks or during kenneling of your dog. Dogs with a compromised immune system may have more trouble fighting the bacterial infection of Clostridium. Very young and older dogs are more likely to be compromised immune systems.  If your dog shows signs of diarrhea for more then one to two days a visit to your veterinarian is highly suggested.

Clinical Signs:

Abdominal stinting (hunched stance with painful abdomen), diarrhea that can appear darkened due to small amounts of blood, shiny mucous in diarrhea, tenesmus (straining to defecate), large volumes of watery diarrhea, lethargy (listlessness), occasionally vomiting, fever, collapse.


A veterinary examination will include a complete history and a complete physical evaluation. If your dog has been recently kenneled or visited dog parks it should be noted. Submission of a fecal sample to the laboratory is very helpful in diagnosing Clostridium infection. This bacterium is rod shaped and is easily viewed microscopically.  A blood sample may be evaluated for cell counts and organ function. In chronic cases the blood sample will help rule out systemic (throughout the body) infection.  In chronic cases an endoscope examination may be suggested to evaluate for intestinal problems. Intestinal endoscopy consists of passing a scope via the mouth and passed through the stomach to evaluate the small intestine. At this time the lining of the gastrointestinal tract is evaluated for inflammation and a biopsy (small sample of the cell lining is submitted to a laboratory) may be indicated.


Your dog may be treated on an outpatient basis. The treatment will include 2-3 weeks of oral antibiotics (amoxicillin, metronidazole, erythromycin, etc.) to fight the infection. Studies indicate that tetracyclin antibiotic is no longer effective as the bacterium has become resistant to it.  It is very important to finish the entire prescription. In conjunction your veterinarian may suggest over the counter medications to help resolve any intestinal inflammation. If your dog has become dehydrated (fluid loss due to diarrhea) it may be necessary to place an indwelling intravenous catheter (temporary catheter that provides access to a vein) to provide fluid therapy. In this case a day of hospitalization may be necessary. Other supportive therapy may include nutritional supplements to balance and promote normal intestinal bacteria. Probiotics such as lactobacillus can be added to your dog’s food.

Some veterinarians may suggest changing your dog’s food to a high fiber diet to help promote normal intestinal flora. Prevention involves avoiding the ingestion of decayed meats and vegetation. If your dog breaks with diarrhea it is  important to seek veterinary care soon to prevent dehydration and eventual collapse.

Clinical Terms:

Acute, chronic, compromised immune system, abdominal stinting, tenesmus, lethargy, systemic, endoscopy, biopsy, dehydrated, intravenous catheter, antibiotics, probiotics, high fiber diet.


Acne is seen during the “teenage” months of your dog (four months to approximately one year of age) and is often self limiting. Acne is caused by the inflammation of the hair follicle and may be observed as dark bumps on the nose and chin. Treatment is simple and offers relief for this itchy disease.

Clinical Signs:  Dark bumps on chin and nose, black heads, reddened areas, rubbing nose on furniture, swelling, severe itching and pain. Rottweilers, bulldogs, and boxers are breeds that are predisposed to acne.

Diagnosis: A visit to your veterinarian will rule out other skin disorders. A thorough history and the evaluation of a skin scraping and hair follicle under a microscope will help diagnose acne.

Treatment: Acne is a rather benign diagnosis and can be treated with a topical medication containing benzoyl peroxide. Do not substitute human acne treatments due to the higher concentrations of additives that are contraindicated in dogs. Twice weekly bathing with a shampoo containing benzoyl peroxide will help relieve symptoms rapidly.

Clinical terms: acnea visit to your veterinarian will rule out other skin disorders such as demodex or other mange


Adopting a rescued animal that has survived abuse whether it was physical abuse or neglect can be a heart-wrenching difficult task that will require a great deal of patience and support from the animal’s new owner. The good news is given time and patience you will most likely create a very special lasting bond with your new pet.

First let’s talk about some of the common behaviors you might deal with when adopting a rescued dog or cat:

  • Cowering, fearful or aggressive behaviors toward other animals, people or new environments.
  • Nervous eating behaviors and food hiding.
  • Uncontrolled nervous defecation.
  • Fear of the veterinarians office
  • Fear of abandonment/separation anxiety
  • Fear of kennels/crates

Cowering, fearful or aggressive behaviors

Dealing with a fearful animal can be very challenging. When your new pet simply cowers at a loving hand it can make a new owner very upset and worried. Your job is to instill confidence so that your new pet can live a happy, confident life without fear. So, how do you accomplish this? Here are some helpful tips:

  • Observe your dog/cat when they become fearful and try to determine what is sparking their anxiety. If possible remove the catalyst causing the fearful behavior from their environment. It could be as simple as certain types of clothing:
    • For example, my rescued German Shepard mix, Heather, was very fearful of any man that wore heavy work boots and gloves. I observed this when I had hired some laborers to landscape my yard. Heather would go into the bathroom, crawl in the tub and refused to come out until the workers were gone. So, how did I deal with this once I observed this behavior? Well, it is easier to tell you what I didn’t do…I didn’t rush in the bathroom, try and drag her out or worse yet coddle her fearful behavior. The worse thing you can do for your pet is to reward fearful anxious behavior. What I did do, was go in the bathroom and tell her in a confident voice that it was okay, that she was safe and then I walked away. I went into the living room and started playing with my other dogs. On the second day, when the laborers came she initially went in the bathroom but came out a couple of hours later. Once she came out and joined the party, she was rewarded with love and treats.
    • The moral of this story is do not reward fearful anxious behavior. Instill confidence in your new pet by acting confident yourself. You are in control of the situation so they don’t have to be.

If your new dog is fearful of any human visitor, follow this tip:

  • Have the visitor sit on the floor or at your dog or cats level. Inform them to avoid looking your dog directly in the eye.
  • Have your visitor speak in a low reassuring tone of voice that exhibits calm to your pet. You can sit near your visitor (on the sofa or a nearby chair) and also speak in a low reassuring voice to your pet.
  • Spread some treats out near the visitor. When the dog or cat approaches the visitor just have them remain still and do not attempt to pet or touch the animal in any way.
  • Once the dog or cat takes a treat or starts sniffing/investigating the visitor, you and your visitor can begin talking softly with one another ignoring your dog or cat.

These actions will reassure your pet they are in a safe environment and you are in charge. Do not praise your pet for their fearful anxious behavior. Do not scold your pet for their fearful anxious behavior. The key is to exhibit calm behavior avoiding any aggressive actions from yourself or your visitor toward your pet. After about 20 minutes your visitor can get up and relocate to the sofa chair or move calmly and slowly about your home. Do not have any loud music, speak or sounds of any kind while introducing your pet to your visitor.

Just for the dogs…fearful behavior toward other dogs:

Do not dump your new pet in a dog park and expect them to just work it out. Bad idea! Initial socialization of your dog should be done in a controlled environment such as a dog obedience training class (the smaller the class size, the better). Commonly, adult rescue dogs with fearful behaviors are started in puppy classes so they feel less intimidated. After success in a puppy class, your dog can graduate to hanging out with other adult dogs and eventually onto dog parks and other social pet events and areas.

The key here is start off slow, be patient and talk to the dog trainer about your dog special needs before you start the training class. It is a good idea to invest in a couple of private sessions with the trainer of the puppy class to familiarize your dog with that person before starting the group training session.

Nervous behaviors relating to feeding times and treat rewards

If your new pet is a nervous eater it might be because food or treat rewards might have actually been used as weapons against them. This is a sad scenario, but not all that uncommon. The result is your new dog or cat is very nervous at feeding times and/or resorts to hiding food in various places in your home. My rescue dog hid kibble in between my box spring and my mattress for the first few months I had her. Here are some tips on how to handle this situation:

If you have a multi-dog or cat household give your new pet their own safe area to eat. Make sure you have your other animals quarantined off in other areas of the house initially.

  • Have breakfast and dinner with your dog. For example, when it is dinner time, make your pets dinner and set it in the same place every meal preferably around the same time.
  • Make sure your meal is ready as well, then calmly go over to your meal and start eating basically ignoring your pet.
  • After you are finished with your meal check your pets bowl and see how they did. If they ate anything at all, praise them and give them a treat. However, do not feed them off your plate when you are eating. This will just encourage begging and they will avoid eating their own food altogether.
  • Be sure to make your new pets meal tasty by include some boiled chicken or cheese as a food lure on top of their dry kibble. This will entice them to their own food bowl and not your dinner.
  • If you are a fast eater, make sure to give your pet at least 20 minutes to eat their meal. After that time pick up their bowl, give them praise and a tasty treat.
  • Make sure your pet has access to fresh clean water at all times.

Uncontrolled nervous defecation… 

If your new pet is so scared at the introduction to a visitor, animal or new environment to where they cannot control their bladder or bowel make sure all introductions are done in a fenced outdoor area or tiled inside area. Make sure the area is spacious and not cramped or too confining. Make sure to limit the number of people or animals to two. Make sure the other animal is leashed but your rescue animal is not (unless your animal is aggressive). You also have to be sure that the introduction animal is a sound/docile animal that will not attack you or your animal in any way.

If your rescue animal defecates, calmly move your animal to another area and wait. Have the person with the introduction animal calmly approach you and your dog. Give a brief introduction and allow them to sniff each other and then move away. Wait a few minutes and try again, all the while being calm. When your animal eventually interacts with the introduction animal without urination or defecation, calmly praise your pet and give them a treat.

Fear of the veterinarians office….

Nobody likes to get a shot, least of all your pet. So, with the first few visits to your veterinarians office, if possible, try to avoid painful veterinary procedures. Take your dog or cat in simply for a wellness check and allow your veterinarian and the staff to gently handle your dog. Bring your dog or cats favorite toy along with you and allow them to play with it while in the waiting room. Let the veterinarian or technician give your dog a treat after the visit. Mobile veterinary services are also a good idea. This allows your pet to be seen by a veterinarian in the comfort of their own home without the stress of being in a strange environment with other stressed animals.

Fear of abandonment and separation anxiety… 

One of my rescue dogs had the unfortunate experience of being abandoned on the side of the road by her previous owners. As a result, she would absolutely insist on getting in the car with me because she was afraid of being left behind, but when the car started to move, she cried and howled constantly because she was so nervous. What I did to help her with this issue was to calmly assure her that all was okay and make the car trips really short (less than 10 minutes). After a while, she learned that she was never left and always made it home okay and she became less nervous. Over time, I increased the length of the car trips and when she would stop whining I would reward her with a treat.


  • Separation anxiety can become a big issue. Pets can get very anxious while their owners are away causing damage to the home and injury to themselves. Here are some tips to calm your pet while you are away:
  • Separate really slowly by leaving for just a few minutes at a time. This can be accomplished by giving your pet a treat, leaving the room and then shutting the door behind you. Leaving your pet alone in another room for 5-10 minutes at a time is a good starting point.
  • After your pet gets used to being left in another room alone for a few minutes then it is time to graduate to actually leaving the house. Leave the house for brief periods of time (20-30 minutes). As time goes on, your pet should act less and less concerned as you leave the house for longer periods of time.
  • Don’t coddle or pamper your pets separation anxiety. Don’t make a big fuss when you leave and don’t coddle your pet as you leave.
  • A special chew toy given to your pet only when you leave the house will give them something to look forward too. That way your pet will look more forward to this special treat and less concerned about you leaving; it will also keep them busy while you are away.
  • Leave a light on and soft music playing. If you are leaving at night or know that you will not return home before nightfall; don’t leave your pet in the dark. Leaving a light or two on will ease your pets anxiety. Soft music can also drown out noises nearby that might cause your pet anxiety.

Fear of kennels or crates….

Some rescue dogs and cats have had their share of crate time and are fearful of crates or kennels. Some dogs see crates as a punishment because when they misbehaved, they got put in the crate. Here are some tips to turn fear of kennels/crates around so your dog or cat can view them as a place of safety and security.

  • Place some nice soft bedding in the kennel to make the space comfortable.
  • Make the sure the kennel is big enough for your pet to easily turn around in.
  • Leave the door open. Have the kennel placed in a high traffic area of the house like the family room. While you are home make sure the kennel door is left open and throw a chew toy or some treats inside. Your pet will go in and eat the treats or play with their chew toy but won’t feel trapped because the kennel door is open.
  • Putting a blanket over the kennel gives it more of a den feel. Make sure the crate is in a warm comfortable room. Having your pet crated or kenneled in a cold non-heated area like a garage can make them anxious because they are cold and uncomfortable.
  • When you do leave and you decide to crate your pet while you are away; follow the tips with separation anxiety and leave for only brief periods of time eventually graduating to longer periods of time.


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Abscesses in horses can have many causes such as puncture from a foreign object, infection, stepping on nails, a previous wound or strangles.

Atresia Ani in Horses

Atresia Ani in horses is a rare condition that causes foals to be born without an anus and/or rectum.

Equine Infectious Anemia in Horses

Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) in horses is an acute or chronic viral disease. The virus is related to the HIV virus but EIA is not known to infect humans.

Common Causes of Abortion in Horses

Common causes of abortion in horses include non-infectious and infectious causes. This article discusses the most common causes of abortion in horses.